Analyzing the Impact of Marketing Communications on Consumer Buying Behaviour of Skin Lightening Creams for Women

	
	

CoolAvenues Newswire Feb 12,2014

Understanding behaviour of consumers is a key to the success of business organizations. Marketing personnel are constantly analyzing the patterns of buying behaviour and purchase decisions to predict the future trends. Consumer behaviour can be explained as the analysis of how, when, what and why people buy. Consumer behaviour can be understood as: "The decision process and physical activity individuals engage in when evaluating, acquiring, using, or disposing of goods and services."


Skin whitening, skin lightening and skin bleaching refers to the practice of using chemical substances in an attempt to lighten skin tone or provide an even skin complexion by lessening the concentration of melanin. Several chemicals have been shown to be effective in skin whitening, while some have proved to be toxic or have questionable safety profiles, adding to the controversy surrounding their use and impacts on certain ethnic groups.
 

Throughout history, tanning has gone in and out of fashion. In Western countries before about the 1920s, tanned skin was associated with the lower classes, because they worked outdoors and were exposed to the sun. Women went to great lengths to preserve pallid skin, as a sign of their "refinement".
 

Women's outdoor clothing styles were tailored to protect against sun exposure, with full length sleeves, and sunbonnets and other large hats, headscarves, and parasols shielding the head. Women even went as far as to put lead-based cosmetics on their skin to artificially whiten their skin tone. However, when not strictly monitored these cosmetics caused lead poisoning. Achieving a light-skinned appearance was achieved in other ways, including the use of arsenic to whiten skin, and lightening powders. The preference for fair-skin continued until the end of the Victorian era.
 

In India, a country where the majority of the population is dark-skinned, there is a widely held belief that dark complexions are inferior to fair ones. This prejudice manifests itself in everything from hiring practices that favour light-skinned employees to matrimonial advertisement that list fairness as a non-negotiable characteristic of the future bride or groom. In the media, light-skinned actors and models are in high demand, while dark-skinned performers are rarely seen on screen. The message is clear: fair skin represents beauty and success, and as a result Indians are keen consumers of products that promise to lighten skin.
 

In fact, the Bengali community in India has come to finely grade the complexion scale, never mind that the rest of the world sees bulk of Indians as being brown-skinned. So, you could find mentions of ‘very fair', ‘pale fair', ‘doodhe-aalta’ (a peculiar Bangla term used to describe a rosy complexion, a pink obtained when a drop of red paint is added to milk), ‘wheatish complexion', ‘bright and glowing fairness', to dusky, ‘ujjwal shyambarna’ (again a peculiar term, referring to the dark skin with bluish-grey hue, generally seen in Vishnu/Krishna iconography) right down to ‘koochkooche kaalo’ or the coal-dark skin.
 

As Indian consumer are giving more important to the fair skin, FMCG companies luring them by presenting various farness creams with various claim of making skin fairer. Fairness creams have been estimated to account for up to 40% of the profits of the cosmetics industry. The domestic skin-lightening cream industry in India was valued at over $190m in 2005. In 2010, men’s skincare category grew 47% in top cities compared with 22% rise in women’s products, reveals market research firm Nielsen men’s skin-care products account for just about 500 Cr of the 4, 500-crore skin-care market in the country-the segment is set for explosive growth.
 

The advertisement gurus frame the advertisement in such a way that it has a greater impact on the viewer, because they know that it is deeply rooted in our culture and society that dark skin people are ignored more often. There is a psychological role which plays a major role behind the advertisements. In advertisement they indirectly present mental status of the dark complexion people, they emotionally correlate with the advertisement model. This is more or less influence the buying behaviour. This mentality is root cause of such advertisement
 

Colour is an important factor in the visual appearance of products as well as in brand recognition; colour psychology has become important to marketing.Marketers must be aware of the application of colour in different media (e.g. print vs. web), as well as the varying meanings and emotions that a particular audience can assign to colour. Even though there are attempts to classify consumer response to different colours, everyone perceives colour differently. The physiological and emotional effect of colour in each person is influenced by several factors such as past experiences, culture, religion, natural environment, gender, race, and nationality. When making colour decisions, it is important to determine the target audience in order to convey the right message. Colour decisions can influence both direct messages and secondary brand values and attributes in any communication. Colour should be carefully selected to align with the key message and emotions being conveyed in a piece.
 

The buying decision process consists of several steps, which are processes undertaken by the consumer with regard to a potential market transaction before, during and after the purchase of a product or service. As consumers, middle-class Indian women in general attach great importance to cosmetics and fashion. The focus on personal appearance in society is considered to be very significant. Many brand managers are, consequently, competing aggressively for market share in this emerging sector. Modern media and marketing communication plays an important role in increasing of demand of women personal care products. 

 

For More Details:  Read this Research Project report.

Contributed By:-

Globsyn Business School, Kolkata

Riddhidatta Mukherjee, Aniket chakraborty, Arnab dutta, Arup dutta, Subham ghosh, Samrat Roy, Jithin venugopal under the guidance of Mr. Kisholoy Roy.

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Analyzing the Impact of Marketing Communications on Consumer Buying Behaviour of Skin Lightening Creams for Women
Contributed by :
Riddhidatta Mukherjee Aniket chakraborty Arnab dutta Arup dutta Subham ghosh Samrat Roy Jithin venugopal Under the guidance of Prof. Kisholoy Roy
1
Introduction Understanding behaviour of consumers is a key to the success of business organizations. Marketing personnel are constantly analyzing the patterns of buying behaviour and purchase decisions to predict the future trends. Consumer behaviour can be explained as the analysis of how, when, what and why people buy. Consumer behaviour can be understood as: "The decision process and physical activity individuals engage in when evaluating, acquiring, using, or disposing of goods and services." Skin whitening, skin lightening and skin bleaching refers to the practice of using chemical substances in an attempt to lighten skin tone or provide an even skin complexion by lessening the concentration of melanin. Several chemicals have been shown to be effective in skin whitening, while some have proved to be toxic or have questionable safety profiles, adding to the controversy surrounding their use and impacts on certain ethnic groups. Throughout history, tanning has gone in and out of fashion. In Western countries before about the 1920s, tanned skin was associated with the lower classes, because they worked outdoors and were exposed to the sun. Women went to great lengths to preserve pallid skin, as a sign of their "refinement". Women's outdoor clothing styles were tailored to protect against sun exposure, with full length sleeves, and sunbonnets and other large hats, headscarves, and parasols shielding the head. Women even went as far as to put lead-based cosmetics on their skin to artificially whiten their skin tone. However, when not strictly monitored these cosmetics caused lead poisoning. Achieving a light-skinned appearance was achieved in other ways, including the use of arsenic to whiten skin, and lightening powders. The preference for fair-skin continued until the end of the Victorian era. In India, a country where the majority of the population is dark-skinned, there is a widely held belief that dark complexions are inferior to fair ones. This prejudice manifests itself in everything from hiring practices that favour light-skinned employees to matrimonial advertisement that list fairness as a non-negotiable characteristic of the future bride or groom. In the media, light-skinned actors and models are in high demand, while dark-skinned performers are rarely seen on screen. The message is clear: fair skin represents beauty and success, and as a result Indians are keen consumers of products that promise to lighten skin. In fact, the Bengali community in India has come to finely grade the complexion scale, never mind that the rest of the world sees bulk of Indians as being brown-skinned. So, you could find mentions of „very fair', „pale fair', „doodhe-aalta‟ (a peculiar Bangla term used to describe a rosy complexion, a pink obtained when a drop of red paint is added to milk), „wheatish complexion', „bright and glowing fairness', to dusky, „ujjwal shyambarna‟ (again a peculiar term, referring to the dark skin with bluish-grey hue, generally seen in Vishnu/Krishna iconography) right down to „koochkooche kaalo‟ or the coal-dark skin. As Indian consumer are giving more important to the fair skin, FMCG companies luring them by presenting various farness creams with various claim of making skin fairer. Fairness creams have been estimated to account for up to 40% of the profits of the cosmetics industry. The domestic skin-lightening cream industry in India was valued at over $190m in 2005. In 2010, men‟s skincare category grew 47% in top cities compared with 22% rise in women‟s products, reveals market research firm Nielsen men‟s skin-care products account for just about 500 Cr of the 4, 500-crore skin-care market in the country—the segment is set for explosive growth. The advertisement gurus frame the advertisement in such a way that it has a greater impact on the viewer, because they know that it is deeply rooted in our culture and society that dark skin people are ignored more often. There is a psychological role which plays a major role behind
2
the advertisements. In advertisement they indirectly present mental status of the dark complexion people, they emotionally correlate with the advertisement model. This is more or less influence the buying behaviour. This mentality is root cause of such advertisement Colour is an important factor in the visual appearance of products as well as in brand recognition; colour psychology has become important to marketing.Marketers must be aware of the application of colour in different media (e.g. print vs. web), as well as the varying meanings and emotions that a particular audience can assign to colour. Even though there are attempts to classify consumer response to different colours, everyone perceives colour differently. The physiological and emotional effect of colour in each person is influenced by several factors such as past experiences, culture, religion, natural environment, gender, race, and nationality. When making colour decisions, it is important to determine the target audience in order to convey the right message. Colour decisions can influence both direct messages and secondary brand values and attributes in any communication. Colour should be carefully selected to align with the key message and emotions being conveyed in a piece. The buying decision process consists of several steps, which are processes undertaken by the consumer with regard to a potential market transaction before, during and after the purchase of a product or service. As consumers, middle-class Indian women in general attach great importance to cosmetics and fashion. The focus on personal appearance in society is considered to be very significant. Many brand managers are, consequently, competing aggressively for market share in this emerging sector. Modern media and marketing communication plays an important role in increasing of demand of women personal care products.
Literature Review Shades of Fairness Of late, however, data suggests that Sinha may not be alone in her rebellion against the cream that promises to make you fair. According to numbers from research firm Nielsen, the fairness cream market has slowed down in value terms and shrunk in volume terms over the past few quarters. Meantime, the entire skin creams category is registering higher growth (although it is also witnessing slowing sales).
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The Rs 2,940-crore fairness cream and lotion market saw a negative growth of 4.5% in sales volumes over a year ago, according to Nielsen's moving annual total (MAT) sales for the year till June 2013. Sales volumes of Hindustan Unilever's Fair & Lovely Multivitamin, the largest player in fairness cream with a market share of over 57%, dipped by 4.2%. And Emami‟s Fair and Handsome cream for men declined by 14%.Fair & Lovely continues to strengthen its competitive position in the mass skin lightening segment, an HUL spokesperson said in a reply to emailed questions. "However, this is also in the context of overall market growth [as reported by Nielsen] slowing down in the face segment, impacting growth momentum of fair&lovely." Declining Sales HUL is quick to dismiss the notion that the slowdown in fairness cream sales is a result of consumer‟swisening up to the product's claims. "There is no data to indicate or suggest that consumers are becoming more mature or moving away from fairness products. The largest benefit space continues to be skin lightening," says the spokesperson. Equity analysts who make a living tracking the HUL stock and its financials can't make much sense of this phenomenon. "It's baffling," says Amnish Aggarwal, senior vice-president (research) at PrabhudasLilladher, a broking firm.
Fairness creams is one of the very few FMCG categories that have seen a sharp dip in sales, he explains. "In fact, there has been no de-growth in many categories within skincare segment such as face wash, bodywash and deodorants," points out Aggarwal. "The reason is difficult to comprehend, but definitely it just can't be attributed to either the economic slowdown or a cut in discretionary spend by consumers," adds the analyst. One possible reason he conjectures is that the positioning of fairness creams has become jaded. "Now, most of the skin creams use the fairness plank. Age-defying creams, for instance, too have a fairness component. So, the positioning of pure-play fairness creams may have to change," explains Aggarwal. But what if the shift has nothing to with either consumerist trends or marketing tactics; and much to do with a sociological evolution of sorts, with the realisation dawning on the urban middle class that fairness is not a passport to brighter marital prospects or indeed to allround prosperity? Coming of Age Today's generation is more health conscious than concerned about the colour of the skin, says Ranjana Kumari, director of Centre for Social Research, Delhi, who shrugs off the idea that fairness creams make Indians confident. "Confidence comes from education. It comes from a sense of accomplishment. It's stupid to think that creams will make one confident. Maybe consumers have started realising the long-term [side] effects of using fairness creams," adds Kumari. Ankita Srivastava may be one such user. The 25-year-old IT professional used fairness
4
creams for a few years, but has now stopped because of scars that developed due to its prolonged use. "I started using fairness creams when I was in class XII, as any other girl of my age and my complexion [she calls herself mocha-coloured rather than wheatish] would do to look fair and beautiful," says Srivastava. "But I stopped using creams a few months back because of the scars that developed. Creams may make you fair, but they can never make you beautiful. That comes from within." Social scientist Shiv Visvanathan reckons it is still too early to say that Indians are maturing in their attitude to fairness creams. "While the obsession of Indians with fairness is intact, their belief in the effectiveness of white magic has certainly declined," says Visvanathan. Fair & Lovely has become like dalda, a generic for fairness. There are thousands of such creams offering fairness, he adds. If one goes by the matrimonial listings in the newspapers and websites, one certainly gets an impression that the fixation with skin colour is by and large intact. Whilst the word 'dark' is rarely mentioned in descriptions of the advertiser or the desired spouse, the word 'fair' of course appears in generous doses. Even in the case of grooms, tall dark and handsome is not an aspiration in India; tall fair and handsome is what most brides are seeking, says Sanjeev Kumar, business head of SimplyMarry.com, a matrimonial website of Times Group, of which this magazine is a part. "It is a common belief that if you are fair, you will find a wonderful husband which will lead to successful marriage and happiness," says Kumar. While there is some evidence in popular culture that this bias is changing, there is still a long way to go in changing the mind-set of the masses, he adds.
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Fair Enough HUL's Paranjpe in the analysts call points out that the issue is not just about dark people wanting fairer skin; the reverse is true too. "There have been studies carried out across the world that...show all consumers, whether fair or less fair or dark, are dissatisfied with their skin colour. Everyone wants their skin tone either two shades lighter or darker. In our part of the world, skin lightening is something that people look for." For the moment, however, Paranjpe is clear that "skin-lightening is the dominant trend and it's likely to be the case in the foreseeable future". DebarshiBehera will agree. The 25-year-old who works in an MNC in Delhi has been an unabashed user of fairness creams for the past four years. "Why should I be ashamed of using a fairness cream? It's a matter of personal choice and if using a cream enhances my look or makes me feel good and confident, then why should anybody have an issue," he asks. Behera started using fairness cream when he went to Bhubaneswar in Odisha to complete his engineering course. And the trigger for using the cream, no marks for guessing, was girls. "I was finding it hard to get the attention of the girls in the college because of my wheatish complexion," confesses Behera. "Moreover, all my friends were good-looking and fair. So there was a sort of peer pressure." So did the fairness cream help? "I have a girlfriend, and she is very fair," he says proudly. Sujit Kumar, like Behera, is another youngster who swears by fairness creams. "Fairness cream has increased my face value. It has not only made me more confident but has also enhanced my looks. I would also look for a life partner who is fair and not dusky," says the 26-year-old deputy manager with Axis Bank, who has been using fairness creams for the past six years. It's the likes of Behera and Kumar that marketers like HUL and Emami will be pinning their hopes on. But if the twitterati are an indicator of the mood of the urban India, these custodians of personalcare brands also have reason to worry. Here are a couple of tweets that may have Paranjpe and company wondering for how long skinlightening will continue to be the dominant trend: ShekharKapur @shekharkapur Anyone who says fair is beautiful has forgotten the most stunning beauty 2 ever hit Hindi Films. SmitaPatil Anand Halve
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@anandhalveAt first fairness creams took 6 wks. Then 7 days. Now instant fairness. 'Instant'?! That's not cream it's acrylic emulsion paint!
For centuries Indian women have been raised to believe that fairness is beauty, and this has given rise to a vast and ever-growing skin-whitening industry - which is now encouraging women to bleach far beyond their hands and face. It all began with a YouTube video a friend sent me. You need to see this, she said, trying to contain her shock and laughter. And so I pressed play. It was an advert. A couple sits on a sofa. The husband reads a paper ignoring his beautiful wife: her face, a picture of rejection. What could this be selling? I wondered, as I watched. Moments later, this scene of spurned love turned soapy when the leading lady was seen taking a shower. But - she wasn't using any ordinary shower gel. No, she was using a skin lightening wash, which, as the graphic which then popped up on screen informed the viewer, would lighten her genitals. After an application of said fairness cream, rose petals appear on the screen, and just like the ending of a good old Bollywood film, the couple are seen happily embracing. The moral of this story - true love will conquer if your nether regions are a few tones fairer. That a skin lightening product should exist for such a private area has attracted criticism, shock, and disgust from some quarters of the media. The desire for lighter skin is nothing new in India. For centuries women in South Asia have been raised with the belief that a fairer complexion equates to beauty. But this latest development in a new area has reopened the age-old fairness debate.
Model Lakshmi Menon's dark skin makes her more sought-after abroad, while actress SonamKapoor's pale complexion endears her to Indian advertisers Should such products be on sale? Is applying bleach to your skin healthy, and what are the psychological effects on girls who are told they're only pretty if they're paler? It even reached the highest level with one government minister writing to the advertising standards body calling for the product to be withdrawn. But, despite repeated concerns, the lightening industry is booming, and diversifying. One market research firm even reported that more skin lightening creams are sold in India than Coca Cola. The market, which initially focused on beauty conscious women, is now pitching to men too. “The first fairness cream that fights sweat" read the large white letters on a bus stop billboard I passed. It was accompanied by a photo of one of Bollywood's actors of the moment, John Abraham, his chiselled face promising fragrant fairness to all who buy the product.
Money and glamour
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In 2010 India's whitening cream market was worth $432m and growing at 18% per year, according to ACNielsen  Stars who have promoted the products include: John Abraham, Shah Rukh Khan, Katrina Kaif, DeepikaPadukone, PreityZinta, SonamKapoor It seems illogical that such prejudices should continue to exist in modern day India, but they do. One wannabe actress told me she failed to get parts in films because directors bluntly told her she was too black. You only have to look at posters and ads in India to see glamorous Bollywood stars who, thanks to a bit of graphics software, have dramatically lighter skin tones - with others going the whole hog and endorsing the products. These are the stars who are worshipped by so many in India, and if many of them are complicit too, then it's fair to assume that this industry will only continue to grow. Research objectives
   
To understand the role of celebrity endorsement in the purchase behaviour of the women consumers To analyze the impact of word of mouth on the buying behaviour To analyze the role of substitutes( home remedies and face bleach) with respect to time cost To understand whether packaging and colour has an effect on the consumption pattern
Constructing the hypothesis Hypothesis 1 Null hypothesis: celebrity endorsements do impact the increase in purchase of skin lightening cream. Alternate hypothesis: celebrity endorsements do not impact the increase in purchase of skin lightening cream.
Hypothesis 2 Null hypothesis: word of mouth plays an important role in the purchasing behaviour of skin lightening cream Alternate hypothesis: word of mouth do not play an important role in the purchasing behaviour of skin lightening cream.
Hypothesis 3 Null hypothesis: Time cost plays a major role in the purchase of skin lightening cream. Alternate hypothesis: time cost does not play a major role in the purchase of skin lightening cream.
8
Hypothesis 4 Null hypothesis: packaging of skin lightening cream affects the purchase pattern. Alternate hypothesis: packaging of skin lightening cream does not affect the purchase pattern. Hypothesis 5 Null hypothesis: colours have a significant role in the purchase pattern as well as on consumers taste and preferences Alternate hypothesis: colours do not have a significant role in the purchase pattern as well as on consumers taste and preferences. Research methodology Research objective: The primary objective of this study is to Analyzing the Impact of Marketing Communications on Consumer Buying Behaviour of Women‟s Personal Care products. Research methodology Primary data were collected through questionnaires completed by female cosmetics consumers. The questionnaire includes closed ended questions. The various questions included in the questionnaire were intended to study how Marketing Communications impact Consumer Buying Behaviour of Women‟s Personal Care products. Likert scales were used for some questions. Sampling details The population for this research study consists of women using cosmetics products. Working women, housewives and college students and retired women were contacted through a faceto-face interview as well as online survey method using the questionnaire. In this study, the sampling unit is the individual consumer who uses cosmetics products. The sample was selected by a convenience sampling method to seek fair, impartial and effective data.
Analysis Hypothesis 1 Null hypothesis: celebrity endorsements do impact the increase in purchase of skin lightening cream. Alternate hypothesis: celebrity endorsements do not impact the increase in purchase of skin lightening cream. Does presence of any celebrity (if your favourite) encourages you to buy a product like a skin lightening cream.
9
80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 1. STRONGLY AGREE(%) 2. AGREE(%) 3. NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE(%) 31-35 4. DISAGREE(%) 5. STRONGLY DISAGREE(%)
18-25
26-30
41-Above
Age
1. 2. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE 1 5 1 2 1 8
18-25 26-30 31-35 41Above Grand Total
3. NEITHER 5. 4. Grand AGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE Total NOR DISAGREE DISAGREE 7 16 12 41 4 1 5 2 2 5 3 7 25 1 16 6 57
1. 3. NEITHER 2. 4. 5. STRONGLY STRONGLY AGREE NOR AGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) AGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) 2.44% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1.75% 12.20% 0.00% 20.00% 33.33% 14.04% 17.07% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 12.28% 39.02% 80.00% 40.00% 50.00% 43.86% 29.27% 20.00% 40.00% 16.67% 28.07%
From the above bar graph and table we can analyze that the respondents disagree that the presence of their favourite celebrity does not impact their purchase of skin lightening cream. We can say that celebrity endorsement does not affect the purchase of skin lightening cream.
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Q. Do you think that celebrities themselves use the product they endorse?
70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 1. STRONGLY AGREE(%) 2. AGREE(%) 3. NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE(%) 26-30 31-35 4. DISAGREE(%) 5. STRONGLY DISAGREE(%)
18-25
41-Above
Age 18-25 26-30 31-35 41Abov e Gran d Total
1. STRONGL Y AGREE 1
2. AGREE
3. NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE 4
4. DISAGREE 9 2 2 4
5. STRONGLY DISAGREE 27 3 3 1
Gran d Total 41 5 5 6
1
1
5
17
34
57
1. STRONGL Y AGREE(%) 2.44% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 1.75%
2. AGREE( %) 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
3. NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE( %) 9.76% 0.00% 0.00% 16.67% 8.77%
4. DISAGREE( %) 21.95% 40.00% 40.00% 66.67% 29.82%
5. STRONGLY DISAGREE( %) 65.85% 60.00% 60.00% 16.67% 59.65%
11
From the above Bar- graph we can analyze that the respondents strongly believe that celebrities do not use what they endorse. Think of a Bollywood celebrity and a specific brand She/he endorses and examine his/her importance for the below mentioned statements in relation to the reputation of the brand and your buying decision.(a) (She/he has a positive impact on the product?)
80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 1. STRONGLY AGREE(%) 2. AGREE(%) 3. NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE(%) 26-30 31-35 4. DISAGREE(%) 5. STRONGLY DISAGREE(%)
18-25
41-Above
Age
18-25 26-30 31-35 41Above Grand Total
3. 1. NEITHER 5. 2. 4. Grand STRONGLY AGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE Total AGREE NOR DISAGREE DISAGREE 4 19 9 9 41 4 1 5 3 1 1 5 3 4 29 1 11 2 12 1 6 57
1. 3. NEITHER 2. 4. 5. STRONGLY STRONGLY AGREE NOR AGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) AGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) 9.76% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 46.34% 80.00% 60.00% 50.00% 21.95% 0.00% 20.00% 16.67% 21.95% 20.00% 0.00% 33.33% 0.00% 0.00% 20.00% 0.00%
12
7.02%
50.88%
19.30%
21.05%
1.75%
From the above pie chart we can understand that consumers agree that the presence of their favourite celebrity has a positive impact on the product. Think of a Bollywood celebrity and a specific brand She/he endorses and examine his/her importance for the below mentioned statements in relation to the reputation of the brand and your buying decision.(b) (She/he can relate to consumer:)
70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 1. STRONGLY AGREE(%) 2. AGREE(%) 3. NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE(%) 26-30 31-35 4. DISAGREE(%) 5. STRONGLY DISAGREE(%)
18-25
41-Above
Age
1. 2. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE 24 3 3 2 32
18-25 26-30 31-35 41Above Grand Total
3. NEITHER 5. 4. Grand AGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE Total NOR DISAGREE DISAGREE 8 7 2 41 2 5 1 1 5 3 12 1 11 2 6 57
1. 3. NEITHER 2. 4. 5. STRONGLY STRONGLY AGREE NOR AGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) AGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 58.54% 60.00% 60.00% 19.51% 0.00% 20.00% 17.07% 40.00% 20.00% 4.88% 0.00% 0.00%
13
0.00% 0.00%
33.33% 56.14%
50.00% 21.05%
16.67% 19.30%
0.00% 3.51%
In the above pie chart we analyze that consumers agree that their favourite celebrity can relate to the brand that they promote. Think of a Bollywood celebrity and a specific brand She/he endorses and examine his/her importance for the below mentioned statements in relation to the reputation of the brand and your buying decision.(c)(She/he suits the brand image)
70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 1. STRONGLY AGREE(%) 2. AGREE(%) 3. NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE(%) 31-35 4. DISAGREE(%) 5. STRONGLY DISAGREE(%)
18-25
26-30
41-Above
Age
18-25 26-30 31-35 41Above Grand Total
3. 1. NEITHER 5. 2. 4. Grand STRONGLY AGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE Total AGREE NOR DISAGREE DISAGREE 1 28 7 5 41 3 1 1 5 1 3 1 5 2 2 36 2 10 1 7 1 2 6 57
1. 3. NEITHER 2. 4. 5. STRONGLY STRONGLY AGREE NOR AGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) AGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) 2.44% 68.29% 17.07% 12.20% 0.00%
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0.00% 20.00% 0.00% 3.51%
60.00% 60.00% 33.33% 63.16%
20.00% 0.00% 33.33% 17.54%
20.00% 0.00% 16.67% 12.28%
0.00% 20.00% 16.67% 3.51%
From the above bar- graph we can analyze that consumers agree that their favourite celebrity suits the brand image of the product. From the above analysis we reject the null hypothesis. Hypothesis 2 Null hypothesis: word of mouth plays an important role in the purchasing behaviour of skin lightening cream Alternate hypothesis: word of mouth do not play an important role in the purchasing behaviour of skin lightening cream.
Will a regular person claiming to have used the skin lightening product over a period of time be more convincing to you compared to a popular celebrity endorsing a skin lightening cream?
50.00% 45.00% 40.00% 35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% 1. STRONGLY AGREE(%) 2. AGREE(%) 3. NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE(%) 26-30 31-35 4. DISAGREE(%) 5. STRONGLY DISAGREE(%)
18-25
41-Above
Age
18-25
3. 1. NEITHER 5. 2. 4. Grand STRONGLY AGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE Total AGREE NOR DISAGREE DISAGREE 11 19 6 2 3 41
15
26-30 31-35 41Above Grand Total
1 1 3 16
2 2 1 24
1 2 9
1 1
1
5 5 6
4
4
57
1. 3. NEITHER 2. 4. 5. STRONGLY STRONGLY AGREE NOR AGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) AGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) 26.83% 20.00% 20.00% 50.00% 28.07% 46.34% 40.00% 40.00% 16.67% 42.11% 14.63% 20.00% 0.00% 33.33% 15.79% 4.88% 20.00% 20.00% 0.00% 7.02% 7.32% 0.00% 20.00% 0.00% 7.02%
From the above bar graph and tables we can analyze that consumers in the age bracket of 1825, 26-30, 31-35 and 41- above agree that word of mouth plays a bigger role than celebrity endorsements. Thus we accept the null hypothesis Hypothesis 3 Null hypothesis: Time cost plays a major role in the purchase of skin lightening cream. Alternate hypothesis: time cost does not play a major role in the purchase of skin lightening cream. You believe over the counter skin lightening creams deliver better results within a shorter period of time when compared to home remedies
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70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 1. STRONGLY AGREE(%) 2. AGREE(%) 3. NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE(%) 26-30 31-35 4. DISAGREE(%) 5. STRONGLY DISAGREE(%)
18-25
41-Above
Age
1. 2. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE 3 11 2 1 4 1 14
18-25 26-30 31-35 41Above Grand Total
3. NEITHER 5. 4. Grand AGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE Total NOR DISAGREE DISAGREE 6 17 4 41 2 2 1 5 1 1 1 5 4 9 24 6 6 57
1. 3. NEITHER 2. 4. 5. STRONGLY STRONGLY AGREE NOR AGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) AGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) 7.32% 0.00% 0.00% 16.67% 7.02% 26.83% 0.00% 40.00% 16.67% 24.56% 14.63% 40.00% 20.00% 0.00% 15.79% 41.46% 40.00% 20.00% 66.67% 42.11% 9.76% 20.00% 20.00% 0.00% 10.53%
From the above bar graph we do not get a clear cut picture that whether consumers agree or disagree to the fact that home remedies are better than over the counter skin lightening cream. But still majority consumers feel that skin lightening cream do not provide better results than home-made remedies.
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You feel “TIME” plays a deciding factor when it comes to choosing between a skin lightening cream and home-made remedies
70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 1. STRONGLY AGREE(%) 2. AGREE(%) 3. NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE(%) 26-30 31-35 4. DISAGREE(%) 5. STRONGLY DISAGREE(%)
18-25
41-Above
Age
1. 2. STRONGLY AGREE AGREE 9 18 3 1 3 9 25
18-25 26-30 31-35 41Above Grand Total
3. NEITHER 5. 4. Grand AGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE Total NOR DISAGREE DISAGREE 6 6 2 41 1 1 5 2 1 1 5 2 11 1 9 3 6 57
1. 3. NEITHER 2. 4. 5. STRONGLY STRONGLY AGREE NOR AGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) AGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) 21.95% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 15.79% 43.90% 60.00% 20.00% 50.00% 43.86% 14.63% 20.00% 40.00% 33.33% 19.30% 14.63% 20.00% 20.00% 16.67% 15.79% 4.88% 0.00% 20.00% 0.00% 5.26%
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From the above pie-chart and table we can see that respondents agree that time is the main factor that prompts them to use over the counter skin lightening cream rather than homemade remedies. Would you consider using Facial bleach which gives instant fairness to that of skin lightening creams
70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 1. STRONGLY AGREE(%) 2. AGREE(%) 3. NEITHER AGREE NOR DISAGREE(%) 26-30 31-35 4. DISAGREE(%) 5. STRONGLY DISAGREE(%)
18-25
41-Above
Age
18-25 26-30 31-35 41Above Grand Total
3. 1. NEITHER 5. 2. 4. Grand STRONGLY AGREE STRONGLY AGREE DISAGREE Total AGREE NOR DISAGREE DISAGREE 2 9 5 16 9 41 1 3 1 5 1 1 3 5 4 2 10 11 1 23 1 11 6 57
1. 3. NEITHER 2. 4. 5. STRONGLY STRONGLY AGREE NOR AGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) DISAGREE(%) AGREE(%) DISAGREE(%)
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4.88% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 3.51%
21.95% 0.00% 20.00% 0.00% 17.54%
12.20% 20.00% 20.00% 66.67% 19.30%
39.02% 60.00% 60.00% 16.67% 40.35%
21.95% 20.00% 0.00% 16.67% 19.30%
From the above bar graph and table we can analyze that respondents don‟t have a clear cut opinion about using face bleach or not. They are indecisive. Some women respondents do not feel the need to use bleach some respondents do feel the need to use face bleach due to the paucity of time. They have time constraint so they want instant fairness. Thus we accept the null hypothesis.
Hypothesis 4 Null hypothesis: packaging of skin lightening cream affects the purchase pattern. Alternate hypothesis: packaging of skin lightening cream does not affect the purchase pattern. Out of the above packages, which one do you prefer the most?
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40.00% 35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00% None of the Package-1(%) Package-2(%) Package-3(%) Package-4(%) above(%) 18-25 26-30 31-35 41-Above
Age 18-25 26-30 31-35 41Above Grand Total
None Package- Package- Package- Package- Grand of the 1 2 3 4 Total above 6 2 2 1 11 8 8 11 2 1 2 16 9 1 1 1 12 7 1 2 10 41 5 5 6 57
None of Package- Packagethe 1(%) 2(%) above(%) 14.63% 40.00% 40.00% 16.67% 19.30% 19.51% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% 14.04% 26.83% 40.00% 20.00% 33.33% 28.07%
Package3(%) 21.95% 20.00% 20.00% 16.67% 21.05%
Package4(%) 17.07% 0.00% 20.00% 33.33% 17.54%
From the above bar graph and table we can analyze that respondents prefer certain type of packaging. Packaging of a commodity impacts the purchase pattern. Thus we accept the null hypothesis. Hypothesis 5 Null hypothesis: colours have a significant role in the purchase pattern as well as on consumers taste and preferences Alternate hypothesis: colours do not have a significant role in the purchase pattern as well as on consumers taste and preferences.
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If you were given an opportunity to choose a colour for the above packaging’s, which colour would you choose for the packaging of the skin lightening cream
Age 18-25 26-30 31-35 41Above Grand Total
1.YELLOW 2.RED 3.BLUE 4.GREEN 5.ORANGE 6.PINK 7.BLACK 8.PURPLE 3 1 2 6
50.00% 45.00% 40.00% 35.00% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 15.00% 10.00% 5.00% 0.00%
Grand Total 41 5 5 6
5 1
5 1 1 1
1
19 2
6 2 1
2 1
1 1 2
2 23 9 3
6
7
57
18-25
26-30
31-35
41-Above
1.YELLO W(%) 7.32% 20.00% 0.00% 33.33% 10.53%
2.RED( %) 12.20% 20.00% 0.00% 0.00% 10.53%
3.BLUE( %) 12.20% 0.00% 20.00% 16.67% 12.28%
4.GREEN( %) 0.00% 0.00% 20.00% 0.00% 1.75%
5.ORANG E(%) 2.44% 0.00% 0.00% 16.67% 3.51%
6.PINK( %) 46.34% 0.00% 40.00% 33.33% 40.35%
7.BLACK (%) 14.63% 40.00% 20.00% 0.00% 15.79%
8.PURPLE (%) 4.88% 20.00% 0.00% 0.00% 5.26%
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From the above pie-chart and table we can analyze that when respondents were asked regarding their preference of colour for purchase purpose majority of them rooted for pink. Pink is a very romantic and feminine colour and mainly used to market products for young girls and women. Pink is followed by black and yellow. These are colours that attract consumers and impact their buying behaviour. Thus we accept the null hypothesis.
Research findings Celebrity endorsements: we tried to analyze the impact of celebrity endorsement in respect of skin lightening cream. There was a variation in results. Respondents agreed that the celebrities that endorse a particular brand he/she has a positive impact on the brand, suits the brand image and relates to the customers on the other hand respondents replied that the presence of any celebrity did not prompt them to purchase the product and they did not believe that the celebrities themselves used to skin lightening cream. The situation is very dichotomous in nature. Comparing the data we can say that celebrity endorsement does not affect the purchase pattern in this case word of mouth is more important. Word of mouth: we have tried to analyze the role of word of mouth whether it has an impact on the purchase pattern or not. The result that we have found out is that it was in favour of word of mouth. In case of skin lightening cream word of mouth plays a bigger role than celebrity endorsements because consumers prefer to hear from other people those who have used the product and get a direct feedback rather than celebrities who do not use the product themselves. Women are conscious about their skin and would like to go for a sure shot result. Home remedies and bleach: we have tried to analyze the role of home remedies in comparison to over the counter skin lightening cream. Through our research we have seen that women prefer home remedies to over the counter skin lightening cream but due to the fast pace of life and the shortage of time women are more prone to the use of skin lightening cream. There has been an increase in the rate of tanning because today‟s women spend longer hours outdoor than indoors. So the purchase of skin lightening cream has increased. In the case of bleach there has been an indecisive response. Women those who want instant fairness and have a paucity of time would prefer to go for bleach and some women do not prefer bleach due to harmful chemicals. Packaging and colour: we have tried to analyze how packaging and colour affect the purchase pattern of skin lightening cream. Through our research we have found out that packaging of a product and its colour attracts customers. Women prefer convenient and easy to store and carry packages so that they can use it on the go. The packaging should be secured so that contents don‟t spill over. As far as colour of the packaging is concerned women respondents have voted for the colour pink followed by black and yellow. The colour pink is very romantic and feminine and mostly used for the products of women. If we look at the Indian context different brands like emami fair n lovely or Himalaya or ponds have used the colour pink in their packaging. Black also has been used for the brands like garnier light for men. Thus we see that packaging and colour both have an effect on the purchase pattern.
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Implications of the study From the research findings we have understood that celebrity endorsements have lost its credibility. Women do not seem to connect with the advertisements and neither do they believe that celebrities use the products they endorse. Thus, we can recommend the advertising gurus to shift from celebrity endorsements to ordinary people i.e ordinary faces with which people can connect. The skin lightening cream industry should focus more on the role of word of mouth. It should focus on the role of market mavens. The advertisement communication should also change because today‟s women do not believe that being fair is beautiful. They are much more confident about their personality. The society is changing and with that the advertising communication should also change. Conclusion We can conclude that celebrity endorsements have lost its credibility. Word of mouth plays a more important role. In todays fast pace life where women are mainly staying outdoors rather than indoor time plays a very important role. The purchase and consumption pattern of skin lightening cream is impacted by the time cost. Nowadays women are much more conscious about their skin so they prefer to use products which have been recommended to them. The connotation of fair is beautiful has changed. Now the new connotation is “ black is beautiful” . women are getting over the image and are much more confident. They do not think their skin tone is a proper parameter to judge them.
References: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_psychology#cite_note-17 http://blog.kissmetrics.com/color-psychology/?wide=1 http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/news-by-industry/cons-products/fashion-/-cosmetics-/jewellery/Fairness-creams-segment-slows-down-Has-the-nation-overcome-its-dark-skincomplex/articleshow/21884199.cms http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-18268914
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