PPT on Cross Cultural Management


Editor - CoolAvenues Jan 13,2014

 Power Point Presentation on Cross Cultural Management.

Embedded Scribd iPaper - Requires Javascript and Flash Player
By:- Mamta Wadhwa Anjula Rani
What is culture? Elements of cross culture What is cross cultural management(CCM)? Why it is necessary? CCM at various levels Factors to be considered in initiation of CCM Key dimensions affecting CCM Steps involved in CCM Cross cultural training methods Culture shock
What is Culture?
Sum total of beliefs, rules, techniques, institutions, and artifacts that characterize human populations.
• Culture is learned, not innate • The various aspects of culture are interrelated • Culture is shared • Culture defines the boundaries of different groups
Culture as:Problem/threat opportunity/resources
Culture gets “in the way” culture as a source of competitive advantage
 Individualistic cultures
Cultures that emphasize individual rights, roles, and achievements.
 Collectivist cultures
Cultures that emphasize duty and loyalty to collective goals.
Monochronic time
 A perception of time as a straight line broken into
standard units.  Timely arrivals and keeping appointments is considered important. Polychronic time  A perception of time as flexible, elastic, and multidimensional.  Appointment schedules are considered approximations and are not kept precisely.
Interpersonal space
Some cultures prefer a close rather than wide distance between conversing individuals.
Language skills
Language fluency another culture. opens insights into
Religion has many effects on personal and professional activities in many cultures.
Cultural difference in business
American business
 Top down management
 Low mutual dependence between employers and employees  Control of business by stockholders and the management  Heavy dependence on machinery and
Japanese business
 Heavy dependence on human resources bottom-up management and teamwork
 High mutual dependence between employers and employees  Joint management of business by Employees and Employees  Heavy dependence on human
technology, vs. Light dependence on human resources  Excellent software-based technology development
 Inadequate software development ability
American Business
 Game concept: Business is a game in pursuit of profits under the rules of
Japanese Business
 Mutual trust-oriented business: business is based on trusting relationship among people rather than the rules of game  Highly precision-oriented and perfectionism-high dependency on human awareness  Quality-oriented
laws and contracts
 Efficiency-oriented and approximate accuracy simplicity, clarity, and quickness  Quantity-oriented
 Short-term performance evaluation
 Easy layoffs, dismissals of employees, and selling of businesses
 Mid-to-long term evaluations
 Job security
1. Cross-cultural management (CCM) studies the behavior of people in organizations around the world and trains people to work in organizations with employee and client populations. 2. It describes organizational behavior within countries and cultures. 3.Compares organizational behavior across cultures and countries: and perhaps, most importantly, seeks to understand and improve the interaction of co-workers, clients, suppliers, and alliance partners from different countries and culture. 4. Cross-cultural management thus expands the scope of domestic management to encompass the international and multicultural spheres.
Business success requires intercultural awareness and effective cross cultural communication skills. So cross culture management :• Promotes clearer communication • breaks down barriers • builds trust • strengthens relationships • opens horizons • yields tangible results in terms of business success.

Identifying the various cultural differences within the organization.
Establishing a basis for building understanding and awareness. Formulating a framework for developing high performing teams.

Individualism/Collectivism Power distance Uncertainty avoidance Masculinity/Femininity
Power distance Individual/ Collective Uncertainty avoidance Masculine/ feminine
(Low) accept responsibility (Individual) Management mobility (low) Innovative
(High) discipline
(Collective) Employee commitment (high) Precision
(masculine) Efficiency and mass production
(feminine) Personal service and custom building
Organizational approach to diversity
 Parochial : our way is the only way.
(ignore differences)  Ethnocentric : our way is the best way. (minimize differences)  Synergistic : combination of our way and their way may be the best way. (manage differences)
Organizations must do for CCM
 Establish a Vision  Create Mutual respect  Equalize power among members
 Give a honest feedback
The monocultural team is a thing of the past
“The central operating mode for a global enterprises is the creation, organization and management of multicultural teams – groups that represent diversity in functional capability, experience levels and cultural backgrounds.
Guidelines for diagnosing the effectiveness of multicultural teams
1.Begin as one would with mono-cultural teams until there is a problem that appears to have a cultural basis.
2.Differences in national culture, while important, are usually secondary. 3.The mistake made by many managers is not that they leap to cultural solutions from personal differences, but that they do not know enough about cultural differences to determine whether or not they are a factor.
Cross-Cultural Training
A guided experience that helps people live and work in foreign cultures. Specific Training Techniques
Documentary programs to familiarize expatriates with their assignment destination. ii. Culture assimilator expose expatriates to simulated intercultural incident and situations. iii. Language instruction builds expatriates’ conversational skills in a foreign language.
Specific Training Techniques Sensitivity training provides experiential exercises to teach expatriates to be aware of the impact of their actions on others in another culture. Field experiences provide firsthand exposure to ethnic subcultures that is intended to heighten expatriates’ cultural awareness.
“Culture shock”
Culture shock is a term used to describe the anxiety and feelings (of surprise, disorientation, confusion, etc.) felt when people have to operate within an entirely different cultural or social environment, such as a foreign country. It grows out of the difficulties in assimilating the new culture, causing difficulty in knowing what is appropriate and what is not.

Read about the country and its culture before departing from the home country . This way, the country and its people are more familiar upon arrival. They then become aware of differences in the new country and are thus better prepared to deal with them when possible (e.g., differences in hygiene).

Avoid being offended, offending locals, or being engaged in any more general cultural misunderstanding; they familiarize themselves with local customs and language.
Be open-minded about the culture they visit. Take 'time out' or rest apart from cultural exchange in order to reduce the 'shock' of adjustment.
 
“Let my house not be walled up on four sides, let all the windows be open, let all of the cultures blow in, but let no culture blow me off my feet”
Mahatma Gandhi
Kreitner, R., and Kinicki, A., (2004), Organizational Behavior, 6th
ed., Irwin, Mc Graw Hill Joynt, P., and Morton , B., (2005), The global HR manager, Mumbai, Jaico Publication Bhalla,V.K., and ShivaRamu, S., (2006), Internatioanl Business Environment,10th ed., New Delhi, Anmol Publication Wagner J, A., and Hollenbeck, R., (2002), Organizational Behavior (securing competitive advantage), 4th ed., Harcourt college publishers Sundaram Anant , k., and Stewart Black, J., (2001), The interantional business environment, 7th ed., New Delhi, Prientice Hall of India